The 486DX series were the complete, full-performance versions of the 486 processor line. Unlike the low-cost 486SX, the DX versions contain an FPU, which significantly speeds up floating-point calculations compared to the earlier 386. In 1992 Intel delivered another huge leap in performance by simply doubling the clock frequency of the 486 core from 33 to 66 MHz. Motherboards at the time could not cope with such high speeds, so the bus clock remained at 33 MHz. Although 40 and 50 MHz speeds were also available, the 66 Mhz version was by far the most common and remained the processor of choice for most high-performance 486 computers until Pentium systems became mainstream around 1995.Continue reading
Intel introduced the 80486 processor in 1989, as a successor to the 80386. It provided a significant increase in processing speed: a 486 was about twice as fast as a 386 at the same clock frequency. This was achieved mainly by a pipelined design and 8 kB of on-chip L1 cache. The initial 486 design also included an FPU, which in 386 systems was still an optional, separate chip.
In late 1991, Intel introduced a low-cost version called the 486SX, and renamed the original processor 486DX. The only difference between the two was the presence of the FPU: a 486SX system was much slower than a 486DX when performing floating-point calculations, but was otherwise identical. The absence of an FPU did not make much of a difference for many common tasks such as word processing, and the 486SX became very successful in low-end consumer PCs, displacing the last generation of 386 processors.
Today we’ll look at two very similar chips. Both are 486SX processors running at 25 MHz. Although the ‘SX was also available in 16, 20 and 33 MHz versions, I’ve found that 25 MHz was by far the most common. I’ve owned several systems with this processor, but since it was so easy to upgrade them to much faster DX or DX2 processors all SX chips quickly ended up in my spare CPU box.Continue reading
From 1986 to 2008, HP sold a line of workstations and servers powered by a processor line called Precision Architecture, or PA-RISC. These systems were mainly targeted at professional users in industry and academia, and provided high performance at very high cost. Nevertheless, like all computers they became obsolete after just a few years, and I managed to find a heap of old HP equipment in the recycling bin of the local university. Today we’ll have a look at the PA7100 CPU and its accompanying “Viper” memory/IO controller (MIOC), both made in the early ’90s.
Here we see both chips side by side. The CPU has HP part number 1FT9-0002, although according to the sticker on the left it used to be 1FT9-0006. Not sure what’s going on here… In any case, it’s housed in a large ceramic PGA package with capacitors on top and a screw terminal to attach a heat sink.
The Viper has part number 1FZ6-0006. Its package is similar to the main CPU’s, but slightly larger and with fewer pins.Continue reading